Important developments in American and Indian natural history during 16-17th centuries

Rajesh Kochhar

For details see the following reference. This Table however does not appear in the paper.

Kochhar R 2012 Early natural history: contributions from the Americas and India.  J Biosciences 37 937-947.

DOI 10.1007/s12038-012-9272-9

Period             Person(s)


1511-1530 Pedro Martir de Angleria (1457-1526) Publishes information on some New World drugs
1526, 1535 Oviedo (1478-1557) Describes more than 250 American animal and plants
1533 Padua University appoints a professor of botany
1545 Padua University establishes a botanic garden
1552 Martin de la Cruz / Juan Badiano Prepares/ translates  a digest on Aztec healthcare practices and herbs, known as Codex Barberini, Latin, 241
1555 Laguna (c. 1510- 1559) Mentions some New World drugs in his commentary on Dioscorides’ Materia Medica
1563 Garcia d’Orta (1501/2-1568) Colloquies published in Portuguese from Goa. Includes first ever publication of Camoes’ work
1565-1574 Nicolas Bautista Monardes (c. 1493-1588) Various  editions of  his work on American drugs, including tobacco, in Spanish
1567 Clusius (1526-1609) Latin abridgement of d’Orta
1570-1577 Francisco Hernandez (1515-1587) Royal Spanish Mission to America; influential manuscript, not published in entirety.
1574 Clusius(1526-1609) Translates Monardes into Latin
1578-1580 Bernardino de Sahagun (1499-1590) Influential manuscript Florentine Codex on Aztec natural history etc.
1578 Christobal Acosta (c. 1514-1594) Extends d’Orta’s work in his Tracado
1582 Clusius (1526-1609) Prepares composite natural history combining d’Orta, Monardes and C. Acosta.
1590 Jose de Acosta (1540-1600) Historia Natural y Moral de las Indias  gives valuable information on the flora of Western South America
1628 Johannes Faber (1574-1629) Animalia Mexicana
1630 Johannes de Laet (1581-1649) New edition of Nieuwe Wereldt  incorporates information on American materia medica for sailors/ merchants
1651 Federico Cesi (1585-1634) Cesi and others complete the encyclopedic work Rerum, with Hernandez as the nucleus.
1678 Hendrik Adriaan van Rheede (1636–1691) Hortus Indicus Malabaricus published from Amsterdam
1686-1692 Hendrik Adriaan van Rheede (1636–1691) 12-volume Hortus Malabaricus

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